The movement of people from agricultural areas to cities to work can cause serious problems in both places. What are the serious problems and what measures can be taken to solve this problem?
The world is steadily becoming more urban, as people move to cities and towns in search of employment, educational opportunities and higher standards of living. This situation can cause serious problems in both, villages and cities which I shall discuss in this essay and also suggest some ways forward.
In cities, there is a lot of pressure on the resources such as land, water and infrastructure like public transport, places, health care, law and order etc. There is an increased demand for land which pushes the property prices. This also leads to encroachment of pavements and creation of slums. There is increase the demand and consumption of water. Limited access to drinking water poses serious health hazards and easy spread of water borne diseases across the masses. Health hazards resulting from urbanization are also connected to air pollution, as well as crime, traffic and lifestyle. The increase in urbanization throughout the world has been accompanied by a sharp growth in urban traffic and the public transport system of the urban cities is choked.
In villages, as more land exits farming, the local agricultural economy may suffer. Closer proximity to urban consumers and new output venues allow farmers to adapt their agricultural operations to higher value or specialty crops, such as fruits and vegetables. This has also led to an industrialization of farming and modern methods are being used to meet the demands of the increased population of cities. The small scale farmer has suffered as a result.
The solutions are not simple. What must be understood is that we cannot stop urbanization. Urbanization is synonymous with progress. Growth of cities is not bad; unplanned growth is bad. Careful planning of cities with the future in mind is required. This will reduce the creation of slum areas. Small-scale urban agriculture, intensive commercial peri-urban agriculture should be promoted. This will meet the food needs. Finally, strengthened and improved rural-urban linkages can make important contributions in improving the situation. If cities and villages are linked well with efficient public transport, many people would not shift to cities.
To put it in a nutshell, I pen down saying that, urbanization can cause problems in both rural and urban areas but steps can be taken to combat the situation.