Concept Of Prepositions in English and their use in various type of situations
I.What is a PREPOSITION
(A preposition is a word which shows the relationship between the noun at the end of the phrase and the word it modifies.)
II.KINDS OF PREPOSITIONS
above, over, in, against, of, on, off, to, up, with, at, by, for, from, out, till, through, down etc.
without, within, outside, inside, into, behind, beside, beneath, below, across, between etc.
by means of, because of, on account of, in opposition to, with regard to, for the sake of, instead of, on behalf of, in the event of, along with, in addition to, in case of, in place of, in spite of, in favour of, in accordance with, in course of, with reference to, in respect to, in comparison to, according to etc.
III. USES OF PREPOSITIONS
(i) (point of time , Exact time)
- She came here at 9 O’ clock
- He was reading a novel at 4 a.m.
- We light earthen lamps at Diwali.
- We eat sweets at Holi.
(ii) Daybreak, noon
- I completed my home work at noon.
- The sight is very lovely at night.
- I work up at daybreak.
- He was not at home at noon.
- She will be at home.
- We met her at the station.
- I live at Kalwan (village) in Haryana.
- He lives at Narwana in Jind.
- We live at Paschim Vihar in Delhi.
- They live at Prem Nagar in Hisar.
- I live in Delhi.
- He lives in Haryana.
- They live in Spain.
- We live in India.
- I was married in March.
- She will do this work in two days.
- He spent his whole life in poverty.
- She was born in a rich family.
- They were travelling in a car.
- He is in his room.
A. To (destination),
- He is going to school.
- Ram is going to France next week.
- Let us go to see him.
- I want to sleep now.
- It is ten to eleven.
- I lived there from July to November.
on Friday, on Fridays, on 4th April, on 30th July 2005, on Christmas Day, on my birthday, on
Independence day, on New Year’s Eve etc.
- He should come on Monday.
- His birthday is on 4th April.
- Where will you be on Christmas Day?
- Do you work on Fridays?
on the evening of March the first, on the morning of May the first, on the following evening,
on Monday morning,
on Monday mornings,
on Sunday afternoons etc.
- This is a book on corruption.
- He wrote a book on English grammar.
- She came into the garden.
- He got into the train.
- The frog fell into the well.
- Ram jumped into the river.
- Translate this passage into English.
- The rain has changed into snow.
- The frog jumped upon the table.
- He fell upon the bed.
- The cat jumped upon the wall.
- The dog pounced upon the cat.
- A letter is written by me.
- The Taj Mahal was built by Shahjahan.
- The boy was beaten by the teacher.
- The snake was killed by Ram.
- What is the time by your watch?
- It is ten by my watch.
- We went by bus.
- Send it by hand.
- He will get back by 10 a.m.
- She should be here by evening.
- I shall leave this place by Sunday.
- We shall finish our work by sunset.
- He was beaten with a cane.
- I always write with a pilot pen.
- Ram killed a snake with a stick.
- He shot him with a gun.
- She went with Ram.
- He is playing with a cat.
- He works with me.
- I am playing with my wife.
- He is a student of this school.
- He comes of a noble family.
- Ram died of cancer.
- His mother died of malaria last year.
- Our Principal is a man of principle.
- Ram is guilty of misbehaviour.
- He took off his clothes.
- The dog jumped off the chair.
- Switch off the light.
- He fell off the horse.
- The thief ran away. or The thief ran off.
- He has gone away for a few days. or He has gone off for a few days.
- He came from the school.
- Ram walked from the hotel to the station.
- Where do you come from?
- The thieves escaped from the prison in darkness.
- I shall start the job from Monday.
- He will join this class from tomorrow.
- He works from 7 a.m. to 5 p.m.
- I read grammar from 5 a.m. to 7 a.m.
- I stayed with my friend from the 10th of March to the 5th of May.
- Your school will remain closed from tomorrow till the 15th of the next month.
- I bought sweets for her.
- She has kept fish for you.
- He can repair the car within two hours.
- I can solve this sum within half an hour.
- He is playing within the four walls of this school.
- A lake is a large body of water within land.
- He will come within a week.
- He will manage everything within a year.
- He came after a week.
- He came here after lunch.
- She returned this book to me after a month.
- She came to me after several days.
- He came after five p.m.
- My brother will come after 5 O’ clock.
- The cat ran after the mouse.
- (b) The police ran after the thief.
- She was talking about you.
- They are always careless about their duties.
- A tea plant is about one metre high.
- It is about four now.
- They went about the village.
- Do not walk about bare-footed in the sun.
- The train is about to start.
- I am about to go.
- You should be careful about your studies.
- He is anxious about his mother’s health.
17. ABOVE, OVER
- The aeroplane is flying above the clouds.
- His expenditure is above his income.
- He is above thirty.
- The water is flowing above the danger level.
- The matter is above suspicion.
- Today’s temperature seems to be above normal.
- I live at the above address.
above all, above and beyond, above the clouds, above the horizon, above normal, above oneself, above the sea level etc.
- The helicopter is hovering above / over us.
- The flags were above / over our heads.
- I put a cloth over her.
- They live over this mountain.
- There is a bridge over the railway line.
- There is a sign of fylfot over the door.
- If you stand under this tree you will find a bunch of mangoes over your head.
B. Over – expressions–
over the building, over the door, over the head, over the mirror, over the mountain, over the wall etc.
- My brother lives across the river.
- Let us sail across the sea.
- A bridge is laid across the river.
- The dog swam across the canal.
- He threw the luggage across his shoulders.
- Ram and Sita were going across the field.
- When I was going to school, I came across Ram.
- I came across a beautiful sight when I was walking.
B. Across – expressions:–
Across the lake, across the lawn, across the bed, across the desert, across the room, across the sea etc.
- It is difficult to sail against current.
- Let us fight against corruption.
- I filed a suit against him.
- He is always against his friends.
- There is ladder against the wall.
- The ship ran against a rock and sank down.
- He is walking along the road.
- She walks along the bank of the river.
B. Along – expressions:–
along the bank, along the beach, along the boundary, along the building, along the fence, along
the railway track etc.
21. AMONG, AMONGST, AMID, AMIDST
A. AMONG ‘in the midst of; surrounded by’
- There is a house among trees.
- The politician is standing among the crowd.
- Distribute these apples among those three girls.
- He distributed his property among the poor.
among them, among you, among his friends, among your brothers.
B. amongst us, amongst our friends.
He distributed the toffees amongst us.
- A comes before B.
- Sita is sitting before you.
- He stood before the judge.
- Put helping verb before the subject in an interrogative sentence.
- Ram married Sita before Vasant Panchami.
- Mohan came here before 9 O’ clock.
- He will complete this work before 10’ O clock.
- He will get back before 10 a.m.
B. He will join our company before a month.
A. Behind to or towards the rear, at the back of
- He was running behind his wife.
- She hid herself behind the curtain.
- Who is standing behind you?
- She walked behind me.
- He is behind others in his class.
- There are many countries still behind us in technology.
- Who is behind the murder of this young boy?
- I placed the lamp below the table.
- We could see the setting sun going below.
- His leg is defective below the knees.
- Do not hit below the belt
- You are below twenty.
- She is below sixteen.
- This work is below my dignity.
- It is below his dignity to beg for mercy.
Below – expressions:–
below the dignity, below the freezing point, below normal, below the surface of water.
25. BESIDE, BESIDES
- Who is standing beside your sister?
- Your argument is beside the point.
- There is a table beside the chair.
- My house is located beside the temple.
- Besides children, their parents also went to the pictures.
- Besides a book, he has a pen.
- I have a car besides a motor cycle.
(Between indicates intermediate in the space separating two persons, places or things.)
A. Between (in the middle of two persons, things etc.)
- Distribute these apples between the two boys.
- There is a keen contest between these two candidates.
- My house is located between the hospital and the school.
- Sita is sitting between Ram and Shyam.
(Reciprocal Relationship or action)
- There is a treaty between these five countries.
- There is an alliance between these four companies.
- There does not seem much difference between the three of them.
- A treaty was signed between three parties.
- between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m.
- between 2000 and 4000.
between each boy , between the boys.
- During the war, many people suffered hardships.
- What will you do during the summer vacation?
- during + summer/ winter/ night
- during + puja holidays/ Christmas
- during + one’s childhood
- during + 2007/middle age/ holidays/ summer vacation
B. During – expressions:–
during assembly, during the match, during monsoon, during recess, during summer etc.
- Ram is sitting at one side of the table and Shyam at the other side. Ram is sitting opposite to Shyam.
- There is bus-stand opposite the school.
- Mohan is standing opposite to Gita.
- His house is opposite to ours.
29. OUT OF
- A frog jumped out of the pond.
- He took her out from the well.
out of the bag, out of the box, out of the park, out of the river, out of the room, out of the window.
She got out of the car and went into a shop.
A. moving beyond
The driver drove past the child.
B. Past – expressions:–
Past the meadow, past midnight, past understanding etc.
A. Round (about the circumference/ periphery/ encircling)
- The earth revolves round the sun.
- Our Principal takes a round of the school.
B. Round – expressions:–
round the sun, round the tree, round the year.
32. IN FRONT OF
In front of (same direction) ‘a place before’, in front of
- I park the motor cycle in front of the hospital.
- She put the plates on the table in front of us.
- There is a tree in front of our house.
- Ram is standing in front of Gita. (Note- both are facing direction)
33. TILL, UNTIL
- You are to stay in bed until next Sunday. or You are to stay in bed till next Sunday.
- She will wait for us until/ till next Sunday.
- We did not get home till 2 a.m.
- He worked till 6 p.m.
A. at one side and out at the opposite side of’
- We walked through a garden of roses.
- We were passing through the tunnel.
B. Through – expressions :–
through the door, through the garden, through the window etc.
- He goes towards the school.
- He went towards the post office.
towards the hall, towards the hill, towards the house, towards the river, towards the school etc.
- He works under my father as a peon.
- The cat is sleeping under the table.
- The book is lying under the table.
- Now she is under police custody.
(a) Tuck this paper underneath the table.
- I climbed up the tree.
- We walked up the hill to the house.
- Those are my keys on the floor. Can you pick them up for me ?
- Let us go up stairs.
A. Up – expressions:–
up the hill, up the mountain, up the stairs etc.
38. Up to- higher motion
- I climbs up to the top of the hill.
- Our soldiers put up to a brave fight.
IV. USE OF PREPOSITIONS AFTER VERBS
- aim at Satish aims at becoming a doctor.
- arrive at Pawan arrived at Delhi yesterday.
- bark at The dogs bark at the strangers.
- call at He will call at you tomorrow.
- fire at Ram fired at the mad dog.
- jeer at Why are you jeering at the poor?
- knock at Who is knocking at the door?
- laugh at He laughed at my friend.
- look at Look at the black board.
- shock at Ram was shocked at his brother’s death.
- stare at Why are you staring at her?
- surprise at Why are you surprised at my success?
- wonder at I wonder at your behaviour.
- ask for He never asks me for help.
- beg for (a thing from a person) The beggar begged for alms from us.
- blame for You can’t blame me for it.
- care for She does not care for her husband’s advice.
- fight for We should fight for our rights.
- hatred for I have great hatred for dishonest persons.
- hope for I hope for your success.
- known for Rana Pratap was known for his bravery.
- look for He is looking for the cat.
- search for I am searching for my lost pen.
- send for Send for a doctor at once.
- start for He started for Delhi last evening.
- vote for Please vote for me.
- wait for Please, wait for me.
- wish for India wishes for peace.
- act on Act on your teacher’s advice.
- call on She calls on her husband.
- congratulate on I congratulate you on your success.
- depend on He depends on his parents.
- feed on The babies feed on milk.
- rely on Do not rely on false friends.
- repent on We repented on our mistake.
- accuse of Ram accused him of theft.
- avail of You should avail of yourself of this chance.
- beware of Beware of pickpockets.
- boast of Do not boast of your wealth.
- come of He comes of our family.
- consist of Water consists of hydrogen and oxygen gas.
- cure of Anacin will cure you of headache.
- die of He died of AIDS.
- enquire of, I enquired of him about his parents.
- fond of I inquired of him about his parents. I am very fond of toys.
- guilty of You are guilty of misbehaviour.
- inform of I informed Ram’s parents of his illness.
- made of This chair is made of iron.
- remind of I reminded him of his promise.
- rob of He has been robbed of his money.
- think of He is thinking of going to Delhi.
- warn of He warned me of the danger.
- arrive in Satish arrived in India last week.
- believe in We believe in our traditions.
- born in He was born in a rich family.
- call in The king called in the girl at once.
- deal in I deal in gold.
- fill in Fill in the blanks.
- give in The enemy gave in the battle.
- indulge in We should not indulge in bad practices.
- trust in Trust in God.
- accede to I accede to your request.
- agree to He agreed to my proposal. (or a proposal)
- applied to I have applied to the Secretary for this post.
- apply to I have applied to the Principal for an examination of English grammar
- attend to Attend to what I say.
- belong to He belongs to a rich family.
- compare to Sleep has been compared to death.
- Complain to He complained to his brother against his friend
- invite to I invited my friends to dinner.
- kind to Be kind to the poor.
- lead to This road leads to Delhi.
- listen to Listen to me, please.
- object to He will object to your proposal.
- pray to We pray to God everyday.
- prefer to I prefer milk to tea.
- refer to He always refers to his own problems.
- related to He is not related to me.
- remember to Please remember me to your parents.
- reply to You did not reply to my letter.
V. USE OF PREPOSITIONS AFTER NOUNS
authority on, discussion on, to put money on, opinion on, pity on etc.
affection for, ambition for, candidate for, capacity for, pity for, request for, taste for, appetite for, blame for, contempt for, craving for, compassion for, compensation for, desire for, esteem for, fitness for, fondness for, guarantee for, leisure for, liking for, match for, motive for, need for, opportunity for, partiality for, passion for, predilection for etc.
assurance of, charge of, distrust of, doubt of, experience of, failure of, observance of, proof of, result
of, want of etc.
attention to, complaint to, key to, approach to, assent to, alternative to, access to, antidote to, excep- tion to, incentive to, indifference to, invitation to, likeness to, limit to, obedience to, opposition to, objection to, obstruction to, preface to, reference to, resemblance to, sequel to, submission to, supplement to, succession to etc.
VI. USE OF PREPOSITIONS AFTER ADJECTIVE AND PAST PARTICIPLES
accused of, tired of, afraid of, certain of, fond of, full of, glad of, good of, assured of, aware of, cautious of, composed of, confident of, conscious of, convicted of, convinced of, defrauded of, deprived of, desirous of, devoid of, distrustful of, dull of, easy of, fearful of, greedy of, guilty of, ignorant of, informed of, innocent of, irrespective of, innocent of, irrespective of, lame of, negligent of, produc- tive of, proud of, regardless of, sick of, sure of, suspicious of, tolerant of, vain of etc.
experienced in, interested in, accomplished in, accurate in, assiduous in, absorbed in, backward in, bigot in, correct in, defective in, diligent in, deficient in, enveloped in, fertile in, foiled in, implicated in, involved in, proficient in, remiss in, versed in etc.
prepared for, eligible for, essential for, prepared for, responsible for, useful for, anxious for, cel- ebrated for, designed for, destined for, eager for, fit for, good for, grateful for, notorious for, qualified for, ready for, sorry for, sufficient for, zealous for etc.
VII. USE OF SOME OTHER IMPORTANT PREPOSITIONS
- abide by She must abide by her promise.
- absent from You must not absent from school.
- act upon Act upon the advice of your elders.
- agree with I agree with you in this matter
- aim at I aimed at the bird.
- anxious about He is anxious about his mother’s health.
- aware of She was not aware of her difficulties.
- blind in He is blind in one eye.
- blind of Ram is blind of one eye.
- born of He is born of rich parents.
- borrow from I borrowed some money from my friend.
- break into A thief broke into my house when we were out.
- busy with I am busy with my work.
- charged with He is charged with murder.
- come across I came across a beautiful sight when I was walking.
- come by Where did you come by this book?
- compare with Kalidas is compared with Shakespeare.
- comply with I comply with your request.
- confident of He is very confident of his victory.
- contended with A very few people are contended with their luck.
- deal with He deals with all in political way.
- depend upon He depends upon his parents.
- desirous of I am desirous of fame.
- die from He died from over eating.
- differ from She differs from her sister in behaviour.
- differ with I differ with my friends on this topic.
- disagree with I disagree with you.
- eligible for You are not eligible for this post.
- enquire after He enquired after my health.
- enquire into The police are enquiring into the matter.
- equal to I am not equal to you in wealth.
- escape from He had a narrow escape from death.
- exempt from The Manager can only exempt you from paying fine.
- faithful to The dog is faithful to its master.
- familiar to Are you not familiar to him?
- famous for She is famous for honesty.
- feel for I feel for lepers.
- fight against Let us fight against corruption.
- fill with Fill this pen with blue ink.
- fit for You are not fit for the post of a doctor.
- free from The boiled milk is free from germs.
- full of This glass is full of milk.
- give away The Chief-guest gave away the prizes.
- give up You should give up smoking.
- good at I am good at English.
- good to Her uncle is good to me.
- grateful to I shall be grateful to you for this work.
- guard against Guard against cold.
- hanker after Everybody hankers after money.
- hard up He is hard up these days.
- hide from Do not hide your faults from your teachers.
- hopeful of I am hopeful of your success.
- ignorant of I am not ignorant of your shortcomings.
- ill with He is ill with fever.
- inferior to This cloth is inferior to that.
- interfere with Don’t interfere with others.
- injurious to Over eating is injurious to health.
- insist on He is insisting on going to fair.
- jealous of Why are you jealous of him?
- junior to I am junior to you in age.
- knock down He knocked down a man on the way.
- known by A man is known by the company he keeps.
- lame of My dog is lame of one leg.
- lay by Lay by something for rainy days.
- lay down He laid down his life for the country.
- look after She looks after her children.
- make up Make up your deficiency in Hindi.
- match for He is no match for you.
- mix with Do not mix with naughty boys.
- necessary for Water is necessary for life.
- necessary to Water is necessary to life.
- need of I am in need of some money.
- obedient to I am very obedient to my teachers.
- obliged to I am obliged to him for his kindness.
- part from He had to part from his friend, weeping.
- part with He had to part with his computer.
- please with He is not pleased with his servants.
- popular with Ch. Devilal was popular with the public.
- preside over The Principal presided over the meeting.
- prevent from My father prevented me from going to the pictures.
- proud of She is very proud of her beauty.
- qualify for He is fully qualified for this post.
- quarrel over I found them quarrelling over some matter.
- quarrel with He quarrelled with his cousin over a pen.
- recover from You will recover from your illness soon.
- refrain from We should refrain from telling a lie.
- remedy for There is no remedy for your problem.
- respect for I have no respect for politicians.
- responsible for You will be responsible for his safety.
- reward for You will get reward for your honesty.
- satisfied with You will be satisfied with her.
- sorry for I am sorry for this mistake.
- stand by He always stands by you.
- superior to This cloth is superior to that.
- sympathy for I have no sympathy for him.
- take off He took off his shoes.
- taste for I have taste for English grammar.
- thankful to I shall be thankful to you for this work.
- think over I thought over the matter.
- tired of I am very much tired of my life.
- to be a need for There is no need for anxiety.
- to be afraid of He is afraid of his dog.
- to be angry at I am angry at your rudeness. (a thing)
- to be angry with I am angry with you for stealing my pen.
- to be ashamed of Ram was ashamed of his bad manners.
VIII. IMPORTANT FACTS : PREPOSITIONS
- It took me three hours to get home.
- I go home by train.
- Bring something home.
- I am tired. Let us go home.
- I met Ram on my way home.
If possessive case adjectives like my, his, her appear before home, then “to” is added before home.
- She came to my home.
- Sita decided to go to Ram’s home.
- I went to her home.
- You can do this work at home.
- We can stay at home.
It is not accurate to write home immediately after in.
- You can do anything in home. (incorrect)
- You can do anything in your home. (correct)
- I will see you next Friday. (not ‘on next Friday’)
- They got married last March. (not ‘in last March’)
- We’ll call you this evening. (not ‘in this evening’)
- I go home every Easter. (not ‘at every Easter’)
- I will go there tomorrow. (not “on tomorrow”)
(i) tomorrow evening, tomorrow morning, tonight, yesterday after noon yesterday evening
- He arrived here yesterday evening
3. OBJECTIVE CASE
- She does not depend on her.
- He relies on me.
- I came before you.
- We have no sympathy for her.
- I have not seen him since.
- We have visited this place before.
4. AND, OR
Different prepositions are used for different words
- He is conscious of and engaged in his work.
- She was surprised at as well as pleased with his performance.
- We should prevent damage to and theft of railway property.
- Please listen to and reflect on this matter.
Same preposition is used for more than one words
- He is not only hopeful but also confident of success.
6. TRANSITIVE VERBS
Prepositions are not used after transitive words. Directly object is written after transition words.
resist, afford, accompany, assist, pick, precede, obey, benefit, inform, violate etc.;
- He ordered a cup of tea.
- India attacked Pakistan.
- They informed me yesterday.
- I have not discussed the matter.
IX. USE OF ‘FOR’ AND ‘SINCE’
|1. Period of time||Point of time|
|2. Time , for||Time , since|
|4) for two seconds, for two minutes, for two hours.||since 4 a.m., since 8 O’clock.|
|5. for two days.||since last Monday,|
|6. for two months.||since March.|
|7. for two years.||since 2005.|
|8. for many days.||since morning, since noon, since evening,|
|(for some years). |
(i) He has been reading for two hours.
(ii) I have been teaching in this school for three years.
(iii) We have been exercising for half an hour.
(iii) He has not been watching TV for many days.
(v) Have you been waiting for him for three days?
|(since July 30th, 2005)|
(i) He has been reading since 2 O’clock.
(ii) I have been teaching in this school since July 30th, 2005.
(iii) We have been exercising since morning.
(iv) Since when has he not been watching TV?
(v) Have you been waiting for him since Monday?